The Zemstva were primarily in charge of collecting tax money, settling land issues as well as local legal disputes. The Tsar was the absolute ruler of Russia.
InRussia was ruled by Tsar Nicholas I, who avoided modernisation and industrialisation. From tothe Balkan crisis escalated with rebellions in Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Bulgaria, which the Ottoman Turks suppressed with such great cruelty that Serbia, but none of the West European powers, declared war.
Around him were advisors who comprised the imperial council and cabinet of ministers.
The central government attempted to act through the zemstva to establish uniform curricula for elementary schools and to impose conservative policies, but it lacked resources.
Not only did technology and industry continue to develop more rapidly in the West, but also new, dynamic, competitive great powers appeared on the world scene: This was seen as a political risk in Russia, which similarly suppressed its Muslims in Central Asia and Caucasia.
In the two centuries before the French Revolution and the triumph of nationalism as a divisive force, Europe exhibited a greater degree of unity than appeared on the mosaic of its political surface. Because many intellectuals, professionals, peasants, and workers shared these opposition sentiments, the regime regarded the publications and the radical organizations as dangerous.
Censorship, which had stifled opinion under Nicholas, was greatly relaxed, and public opinion found a voice. Two of the most distinguished writers of this time were Tolstoy and Dostoevsky. As Europe adapted to modernisation, Russia lagged behind. In general, the judicial system functioned effectively, but the government lacked the finances and cultural influence to extend the court system to the villages, where traditional peasant justice continued to operate with minimal interference The issue of absolute power in 19th century russia provincial officials.
The central government attempted to act through the zemstva to establish uniform curricula for elementary schools. There was no place for freedom of speech and political debate. He came into power during the Napoleonic Wars, and is most remembered for his involvement in these wars and his sudden change from an active liberal ruler to a more moderate czar.
When one completely dissects the reforms made by both men, a mutual goal can be clearly seen - avert an insurgency of the peasantry.
All social classes were now permitted to take part in the voting process and hence even peasants were represented in the councils. Within one year, Russian troops were nearing Constantinopleand the Ottomans surrendered. In addition, the regime instructed judges to The issue of absolute power in 19th century russia each case on its merits and not to use precedents, which would have enabled them to construct a body of law independent of state authority.
Here the greatest event was the laying down of the Trans-Siberian Railway in Every man over twenty was made liable to conscription irrespective of his social class, if medically able to do so. All personal serfdom was abolished, and the peasants were to receive land from the landlords and pay them for it.
Many prominent writers and musicians brought Russia into a Golden Age of literature and music. When Britain threatened to declare war over the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, an exhausted Russia backed down.
Another feature of the period was the drawing into the central diplomatic orbit of countries that had been absorbed hitherto in questions of little consequence. We cannot take any part, more than we have done.
Many Jews emigrated or joined radical movements. The calmer Petr Tkachev argued against the advocates of Marxism see Glossarymaintaining that a centralized revolutionary band had to seize power before capitalism could fully develop.
Witte championed foreign loans, conversion to the gold standard, heavy taxation of the peasantry, accelerated development of heavy industry, and a trans-Siberian railroad.
By extension, were both Tsars equally admired or disliked; or did their policies and methods of ruling create distinctions between the two? The Ministry of Finance supported railroad development, which facilitated vital export activity, but it was cautious and moderate in its foreign ventures.
In the s, Nikolay Chernyshevskiy, the most important radical writer of the period, posited that Russia could bypass capitalism and move directly to socialism see Glossary. Three years later, Russia allied itself with France by entering into a joint military convention, which matched the dual alliance formed in by Germany and Austria-Hungary.
By Russia had about 32, kilometers of railroads and 1. As a result, Pan-Slavists were left with a legacy of bitterness against Austria-Hungary and Germany for failing to back Russia. In most local government in the European part of Russia was organized into provincial and district elected self-government zemstvoswhich were made up of representatives of all classes and were responsible for local schools, public health, roads, prisons, food supply, and other concerns.
The regime relied on journals and newspapers to gain support for its domestic and foreign policies. Nevertheless, Catherine realized that serfdom must be ended, going so far in her Nakaz "Instruction" to say that serfs were "just as good as we are" — a comment the nobility received with disgust.
To replace Muslim refugees who had fled across the new frontier into Ottoman territory the Russian authorities settled large numbers of Christians from an ethnically diverse range of communities in Kars Oblast, particularly the GeorgiansCaucasus Greeks and Armenianseach of whom hoped to achieve protection and advance their own regional ambitions on the back of the Russian Empire.
Disappointment at the results of the war stimulated revolutionary tensions, and helped SerbiaRomania and Montenegro to gain independence from and strengthen themselves against the Ottomans.
Essentially the gentry had absolute supremacy over peasantry. Railroad mileage almost doubled, giving Russia the most track of any nation other than the United States.Economic development.
Russia's population growth rate from to was the fastest of all the major powers except for the United States. Between andRussia's population doubled, but it remained chiefly rural well into the twentieth century. Michael Lynch takes a fresh look at the key reform of 19th-century Russia.
Michael Lynch | Published in History Review Issue 47 December In serfdom, the system which tied the Russian peasants irrevocably to their landlords, was abolished at the Tsar’s imperial command.
Russia in the 19th century Russia before Tsars in the 19th century: Alexander I () Nicholas I () Alexander II () Alexander III () Nicholas II () Only Alexander I before and Alexander II before had reform minds, other were absolute monarch5/5(2).
Sample Essay: Problems in Russia in the s and Alexander II’s Reforms When Tsar Nicholas I passed away inhe left the country in a state some may describe as a national entropy. There were numerous problems, which were now Alexander II’s (Nicholas I’s eldest son and successor) to resolve.
During the 19th century, Russia was ruled by autocrats, or czars, who ruled with absolute power. Their individual philosophies affected the history and culture of the vast empire.
The first of the czars was Alexander 1, who came to power during the Napoleonic wars. proclaimed the absolute power of the emperor. of political and social issues. Direct presentations of these discussions were censured.
The prose writers of this period shared important Russia in the th. Century. 19th Century Russian Icon. St Nicholas Center Collection.Download